The air pollutants ammonia (NH 3 ), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), nitrogen oxides (NO X ), fine particulate matter (PM) and sulphur oxides (SO X ) damage human health and the environment, so reducing their emissions is a priority of both EU and international air quality legislation. Since 2005, emissions of all five pollutants have declined and, by 2012, the emission ceilings set for NH 3 , NMVOCs, NO X and SO X  had been met. However, based on progress so far, it is clear that more effort, particularly in the transport, energy and agriculture sectors, is essential if the EU is to fulfil longer term reduction commitments.

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